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  1. ​Industry Revolution

  2. ​Lehman shock

  3. ​World War Ⅱ

  4. ​Earthquake 2011

⭐︎   Basic     読みやすい

⭐︎⭐︎ Intermediate 読み応えがある

Industrial Revolution ⭐︎⭐︎

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States. Manufacturing changed from hand production methods to the machines-based factory system. 

 

The Industrial Revolution and the related technological innovations such as locomotives, steamboats, and steamships originated from Great Britain. By the mid-18th century, Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, managing global trading with North America and the Caribbean colonies. 

 

Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, output, and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to adopt modern production procedures, using machine tools and steam power.

 

The Industrial Revolution marks a turning point in history. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Some economists have said the most important effect of the Industrial Revolution was that the living standard for the general population began to increase consistently.

Let's Listen
00:00 / 01:14

産業革命 ⭐︎⭐︎

産業革命はヨーロッパ、アメリカで起きた製造業の工業化です。

産業革命や蒸気船などの技術革新はイギリスから始まりました。18世紀の中頃にはイギリスは植民地との貿易などで先頭を走っていました。

 

 

繊維工場は雇用や生産量で産業革命の中心で、いち早く機械化や蒸気機関が導入されました。

 

 

 

 

 

 

産業革命は歴史上の転換点でもあります。人口が増えただけでなく、生活水準も向上しました。

​Lehman Shock ⭐︎

A financial crisis is a wide variety of situations where some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many financial crises have caused banking panics. Many recessions coincided with these panics. 

 

The global financial crisis in 2008 was a severe worldwide economic crisis. Financial institutions worldwide suffered severe damage. During and after the crisis, governments implemented massive bail-out plans to prevent a collapse of the global financial system. The crisis sparked resulted in higher unemployment and lower fertility. 

 

One of the top investment banks, Lehman Brothers, went bankrupt on September 15, 2008. In 2008, Lehman faced an unprecedented loss due to the continuing subprime mortgage crisis. Lehman's loss resulted from having too large positions in subprime and other lower-rated mortgage-backed bonds.

 

The collapse of Lehman Brothers brought about panic in financial markets. The bankruptcy triggered a 4.5% drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Money market mutual fund saw mass withdrawal demands to avoid losses. The government and the Federal Reserve system responded with several emergency measures to counter the panic.

Let's Listen
00:00 / 01:25

リーマンショック ⭐︎

金融危機は経済危機を19世紀以降引き起こしてきました。突然株価など資産価格が下落し、不景気につながっています。

2008年の経済危機は規模が大きく、世界の金融会社が損失を受け世界中の政府が救済策を実行したものの、失業率が上がり、出生率が下がりました。

リーマンブラザーズは2008年9月に破綻しました。原因はサブプライム、住宅ローンを束ねた債券に投資し過ぎたため損失が膨らんだことです。

​このリーマンショックは証券市場をパニックにし、ダウ指数、MMFなどが急落し、政府や中央銀行は緊急手段を用いて安定化に努めました。

WW2 ⭐︎⭐︎

World War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. World War II was by far the deadliest conflict in human history and resulted in 70 to 85 million fatalities, mostly civilians. Tens of millions of people died due to genocides, starvation, and disease. 

 

It involved the vast majority of the world's countries, each of which formed two opposing military alliances. These nations utilized their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort. 

 

World War II is generally considered to have begun in September 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. The United Kingdom and France subsequently declared war on Germany. From late 1939 to early 1941, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe in a series of campaigns and treaties. Germany formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan.

 

Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937. In December 1941, Japan attacked American and British territories with near-simultaneous offensives against Southeast Asia and the Central Pacific.

 

World War II changed the political, social alignment. The United Nations was established to foster international cooperation and not to repeat future conflicts. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, lasting half-century-long Cold War. As the influence of European countries got weaken, and African and Asian were decolonized, many nations became independent.

Let's Listen
00:00 / 01:48

第二次世界大戦 ⭐︎⭐︎

第二次世界大戦は1939年から6年にわたり起きた戦争で、歴史上最も多くの犠牲者を出した(虐殺、飢饉や病気を含めて)。

世界中の国が対戦した国のどちらか側について、国の総力をあげて戦いました。

1939年にドイツのポーランド侵攻により始まったとされ、イギリスとフランスがドイツに宣戦布告しました。ドイツはヨーロッパを支配下に置き、イタリアと日本と枢軸国を形成しました。

日本は大東亜共栄圏を目指して1937年から中国と戦争しており、アメリカとイギリスに1941年に宣戦布告しました。

​第二次世界大戦は世界の政治体制を変えるほどでした。戦争を繰り返さないために国連が設立され、アメリカとソ連の冷戦が始まりました。また、アジアアフリカの国々はヨーロッパの宗主国から独立を果たしました。

Earthquake 2011 ⭐︎

An earthquake, also known as a quake, is the shaking of the Earth. It results from a sudden release of energy in the Earth which creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from weak ones to violent disasters enough to destroy buildings. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides and, occasionally, volcanic activity.

 

The 2011 earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and massive economic impacts. The tsunami created over 300,000 refugees in Japan and resulted in shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine, and fuel for survivors. 

 

More than 20,000 people were killed by the earthquake. The Japanese government ordered the Self-Defence Forces to save lives, while many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. 

 

The earthquake did massive damage to Japanese society. Many industrial plants were forced to suspend their operation. The tsunami which followed the quake caused critical damage to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. This issue led to radioactivity released from the power plant.

Let's Listen
00:00 / 01:09

地震 ⭐︎

地震は地面が揺れる現象です。地殻でエネルギーが放出され地震波が伝わることで地表が揺れます。小さなものから、建物が倒壊するほど大きなものまであります.

2011年の地震と津波は多大な人的、経済的な被害を出しました。300000万人以上が避難生活を余儀なくされ、ライフラインの不足が発生しました。

2万人以上がなくなり、自衛隊や国際援助チームまで含めて救助活動が行われました。

​被災した工場は停止となり、津波により福島の原子力発電所が破壊されて放射線が漏れ出てしまいました。

One year
Four Seasons
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